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14 Times The Greek Gods Shapeshifted To Rape Mortals

A dark part of Greek Mythology was the normalization of rape. Zeus, Poseidon, Hades, even Dionysus, are all guilty of sexually assaulting humans using dubious means.

ancient-greek-gods-greek-mythology-rape-transformation
Danae receiving the Golden Rain, Tizian, 1560-5, Prado; with The Abduction of Ganymede, Rembrandt van Rijn, 1635, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden

 

Greek Mythology is rife with stories of transformation. The ancient Greek gods were able to shapeshift in order to approach mortals without getting noticed. However, more often than not, the motives driving these transformations were dubious at best. In this article, we will examine 14 cases in which the Greek gods shapeshifted to rape and abuse mortal humans.

 

Ancient Greek Gods And Rape

leighton-demeter-persephone-painting
The Return of Persephone (Persephone reunites with Demeter), Frederic Leighton, 1891, Leeds Museums and Galleries
Article continues below advertisement

 

“At first, they say, Demeter was angry at what had happened, but later on she laid aside her wrath and wished to bathe in the Ladon . . .”
PAUSANIAS 

 

With these words, Pausanias describes the reaction of goddess Demeter to her rape from Poseidon. It is evident right away that Greek mythology holds little sympathy for the victims of sexual assault. Instead, they are expected to “lay aside their wrath” and go on with their lives.

 

Demeter was a goddess of fertility whose beloved daughter Persephone had also been abducted by Hades, the god of the underworld. When Demeter protested Persephone’s abduction, Zeus, the king of the gods, kindly asked Hades to leave the girl. Worth noting here is that Zeus was also said to have raped Persephone in the form of a snake which perplexes things even more. Coming back to the story, before letting Persephone leave, Hades tricked her into eating food from the Underworld. Unaware of the consequences Persephone tried the food only to realize afterward that this food had a special power; it bound her to the will of Hades who reached a new agreement with Zeus and Demeter. Persephone would be forced to spend half of the year below the earth with the dead and half of the year above with the living.

 

If goddesses, as important for Greek mythology as Demeter and Persephone, were abused and disrespected in such ways, one can only expect that mortal women could not hope for something better.

 

Transformation In Greek Mythology

gian-lorenzo-bernini-daphne-apollo-sculpture
Daphne and Apollo, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 1622-5, Borghese Gallery
Article continues below advertisement

 

Transformation or Metamorphosis is the act of changing one’s form into something else. Cases of transformation in ancient Greek and Roman mythology are more than frequent; they are abundant. From Homer’s Iliad to Virgil and Ovid, transformations were a topic that must have surely provoked the imagination of the ancients.

 

Animism, the belief that inanimate things are alive, was a major aspect of paganism, and not only. According to Sigmund Freud’s Totem and Taboo, animism has deep roots in the psychosynthesis of the individual which may explain why it is present in societies from every part of the world throughout the millennia. This seems to be related to the fascination of the ancient Greeks and Romans with shapeshifting, as all objects could potentially become devices for a god to communicate with a human or even host a human soul.

 

This article is interested in very specific transformations, that is transformations of ancient Greek gods in order to rape or abuse a mortal. As mortals, we will also consider the nymphs, who were minor deities with extremely long lifespans.

 

Part of this list of transformations was inspired by the Greek myth of Arachne as presented in Ovid’s Metamorphoses. In that story, Ovid described Arachne as a master weaver who had the nerve to proclaim that she was better than the gods at weaving. When Athena challenged her to a contest, Arachne weaved a legendary tapestry presenting 18 stories of ancient Greek gods shapeshifting in order to rape and take advantage of mortal men and women. Arachne’s tale clearly showcased that these stories of transformation and rape could be perceived as problematic by the ancients. In fact, they could have even inspired terror. What other feeling could someone experience in the thought of a malevolent god able to transform into virtually everything in order to abuse powerless humans in order to satisfy his capricious nature?

 

1. Europa

tizian-rape-europa-painting
The rape of Europa, Titian, 1562, Isabella Steward Gardner Museum.
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Europa was the daughter of Agenor, the king of Phoenicia. Zeus took a liking to the young princess and adopted the form of a white bull to approach her.

 

Europa, unaware of the bull’s true identity and astonished by his beauty, climbed on the animal’s back. Zeus took the opportunity and abducted Europa carrying her all the way to the island of Crete, where they had two children together. This mythological episode was known in antiquity as the rape or abduction of Europa.

 

2. Callisto

titian-diana-callisto-painting
Diana and Callisto, Titian, 1556-1559, National Gallery
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According to Apollodorus, Callisto was the daughter of King Lycaon of Arcadia. She had taken an oath to remain a virgin since she was a devout follower of the Greek goddess Artemis.

 

To get her, Zeus assumed Artemis or Apollo’s form and, having earned Callisto’s trust, raped her. As if that was not enough, Zeus turned the unfortunate woman into a bear to save her from Hera’s jealousy. While still a bear, Callisto gave birth to a child named Arcas.

 

Finally, Hera did get her revenge by having Artemis kill Callisto by convincing her that she was a wild beast. However, there is also a version of the myth in which Artemis killed Callisto for having lost her virginity.

 

3. Antiope

corregio-zeus-antiope-painting
Jupiter and Antiope, Antionio da Corregio, 1524-7, Louvre
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Antiope in Greek mythology was the daughter of King Asopus of Boeotia. Zeus, enchanted by her beauty, transformed himself into a satyr and raped her.

 

Antiope’s rape by the father of the ancient Greek gods was only the beginning of her misfortunes. Soon after it became evident that she was pregnant with Zeus’ child. Afraid that her father would react badly to the news, she ran to Sicyon and married the local king. However, she was dragged back to Boeotia by her uncle.

 

In a version of the myth, Dionysus cursed Antiope to become insane after killing her uncle’s tyrannical wife. In the end, Phocus of Tithorea broke the enchantment and married Antiope.

 

4. Alcmene

tardieu-zeus-alcmene-print
Jupiter and Alcmene, print by Nicolas Tardieu, after Perino del Vaga, 1729-1749, British Museum
Article continues below advertisement

 

Alcmene was the wife of the king of Tiryns, Amphitryon. While her husband was away in a military expedition, Zeus conceived a truly disturbing plan. The Greek god took the form of Amphitryon and spent three nights with Alcmene, who was unaware that this was not her husband.

 

From this union, the greatest Greek hero was born, Hercules.

 

5. Danae

titian-danae-receiving-golden-rain-painting
Danae receiving the Golden Rain, Tizian, 1560-5, Prado
Article continues below advertisement

 

Danae was the daughter of Acrisius, the King of Argos. According to a prophecy, Acrisius would die by the hand of his daughter’s son. Unable to accept his fate, Acrisius decided to imprison Danae and forbid all men from approaching her.

 

To his bad luck, Danae attracted the interest of Zeus. Even though she was locked in a bronze dungeon with no possible entrance, Zeus was the King of the ancient Greek gods, and nothing could stop him. Finally, the god of thunder became a rain of gold and infiltrated Danae’s cell from the roof. In the end, Danae gave birth to Perseus, and Acrisius realized that no one can control his fate.

 

6. Aegina

greuze-aegina-visited-zeus-jupiter
Aegina visited by Jupiter, Jean-Baptiste Greuze, 
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“but he carried you to the island Oenopia and slept with you there, where you bore Aeacus, the dearest of all men on earth to the loud-thundering father.”
Pindar, Isthmian 8

 

Aegina was the daughter of the river-god Asopus and the nymph Metope. Zeus abducted her in the form of an eagle and carried her all the way to Oenone, an island near Athens. Asopus followed them and attempted to retrieve his daughter, but Zeus repelled him with his thunder.

 

In Oenone, Aegina gave birth to Zeus’ son named Aeacus, who later became king of the island, which received Aegina’s name.

 

7. Theophane

herbert-james-draper-golden-fleece-painting
The Golden Fleece, Herbert James Draper, 1904, Bradford Museums

 

Theophane was an extremely beautiful maiden and the daughter of Bisaltes. Her beauty was so famous that suitors continually came asking for her hand.

 

Poseidon, the ocean ancient Greek god of the ocean, took her away by force to the island of Crumissa, but even there, the suitors kept harassing the woman. Poseidon, at that point, decided to change Theophane into a ewe and himself into a ram. The rest of the island’s inhabitants were turned into cattle and the suitors into wolves. From the union (or rape) of Theophane and Poseidon was born the ram bearing the legendary golden fleece.

 

8. Medusa

carlos-schwabe-medusa-gorgon-painting-
Medusa, Carlos Schwabe, 1895, private collection, via Art Renewal Centre

 

The Gorgon Medusa was not always a terrifying creature turning those looking at her into stone. At first, Medusa was a beautiful woman who had the bad fortune of being beautiful enough to become Poseidon’s target.

 

The god raped the woman as a horse inside the temple of Athena. Of course, Athena could not leave the sacrilege of her temple unpunished. Then again, she could not punish Poseidon, who was also a god and also older than her. Instead, Athena directed her anger towards Medusa, transforming her into an ill-famed beast so ugly that those looking at it turned into stone.

 

9. Melantho

dolphin-poseidon-greek-mythology
Photo of a dolphin

 

Melantho was a daughter of the legendary Deucalion and a princess of Phokis. Poseidon seduced her by shapeshifting into a dolphin. Melantho bore the ancient Greek god a son named Delphos.

 

10. Helle

phrixus-helle-pompei
Phrixus and Helle, Roman fresco from Pompei, 45-79 CE, Archaeological Museum, Naples

 

Helle was a princess of Athamantia in Boiotia. Her story was tragic, but that is a topic for another time. What matters is that at some point, Helle fell into the Hellespont strait (named after her) to escape her stepmother. Poseidon saved her and seduced her while he was transformed into an ocean nymph.

 

11. Iphimedeia

neptune-calming-seas-ancient-greek-gods-statue
Neptune calming the waves, Lambert-Sigisbert, 1737, Louvre

 

In the same way, Zeus visited Danae in the form of golden rain, Poseidon visited Iphimedeia, the wife of Lord Aloeus of Malis, in the form of seawater. However, there are not many details about this story.

 

12. Ganymede

rembrandt-abduction-ganymede-painting
The Abduction of Ganymede, Rembrandt van Rijn, 1635, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden

 

“A pleasant thing hath lad’s-love ever been since Ganymede was loved of the great Son of Cronus, the king of the Immortals, who seized and brought him to Olympus and made him a God, what time his boyhood was in its lovely flower.”
THEOGNIS, FRAGMENT 1. 1345

 

Ganymede is a case of special interest. His story is indicative not only of the ancient Greek perceptions surrounding rape but also pedophilia.

 

According to Greek Mythology, Ganymedes was born in Troy. While still at a young age, he became the object of desire for none other than Zeus. The Greek god transformed into an eagle and abducted Ganymedes, bringing him to Olympus, where he was granted immortality and eternal youth, as long as he served as the gods’ cupbearer.

 

13. Erigone

carle-van-loo-erigone-greek-mythology-paitning
Erigone, Carle Van Loo, ca. 1747, High Museum of Art

 

Erigone, the daughter of Icarius, the man who introduced the cult of Dionysus to Athens, is said by Ovid to have been raped by Dionysus in the form of a bunch of grapes.

 

14. Canace

pichore-canace-ovid-illustration-greek-mythology
Canace, Jean Pichore, 15th century, via BnF Gallica

 

Just as Zeus abducted Europa in the form of a bull, Poseidon also transformed into a bull to abduct and rape Canace, a Thessalian princess.

 

Conclusion: Ancient Greek Gods And Rape In Antiquity

 

Rape remains a dark but surprisingly common aspect of Greek mythology. Xenophanes, the presocratic philosopher, criticized Homer, Hesiod, and most Greeks in general for fashioning their gods based on their societies. If that is true, then we can safely argue that rape was a pretty common practice of the strict patriarchal ancient Greek society. The normalization of rape extended to the point that it is almost impossible to distinguish between consensual intercourse, abduction, and rape in Greek mythology. Other times, even if it is clear that someone has been raped, the moral implications of such an act are not always explicit.

Article continues below advertisement

ancient-greek-gods-greek-mythology-rape-transformation
Danae receiving the Golden Rain, Tizian, 1560-5, Prado; with The Abduction of Ganymede, Rembrandt van Rijn, 1635, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden

 

Greek Mythology is rife with stories of transformation. The ancient Greek gods were able to shapeshift in order to approach mortals without getting noticed. However, more often than not, the motives driving these transformations were dubious at best. In this article, we will examine 14 cases in which the Greek gods shapeshifted to rape and abuse mortal humans.

 

Ancient Greek Gods And Rape

leighton-demeter-persephone-painting
The Return of Persephone (Persephone reunites with Demeter), Frederic Leighton, 1891, Leeds Museums and Galleries
Article continues below advertisement

 

“At first, they say, Demeter was angry at what had happened, but later on she laid aside her wrath and wished to bathe in the Ladon . . .”
PAUSANIAS 

 

With these words, Pausanias describes the reaction of goddess Demeter to her rape from Poseidon. It is evident right away that Greek mythology holds little sympathy for the victims of sexual assault. Instead, they are expected to “lay aside their wrath” and go on with their lives.

 

Demeter was a goddess of fertility whose beloved daughter Persephone had also been abducted by Hades, the god of the underworld. When Demeter protested Persephone’s abduction, Zeus, the king of the gods, kindly asked Hades to leave the girl. Worth noting here is that Zeus was also said to have raped Persephone in the form of a snake which perplexes things even more. Coming back to the story, before letting Persephone leave, Hades tricked her into eating food from the Underworld. Unaware of the consequences Persephone tried the food only to realize afterward that this food had a special power; it bound her to the will of Hades who reached a new agreement with Zeus and Demeter. Persephone would be forced to spend half of the year below the earth with the dead and half of the year above with the living.

 

If goddesses, as important for Greek mythology as Demeter and Persephone, were abused and disrespected in such ways, one can only expect that mortal women could not hope for something better.

 

Transformation In Greek Mythology

gian-lorenzo-bernini-daphne-apollo-sculpture
Daphne and Apollo, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 1622-5, Borghese Gallery
Article continues below advertisement

 

Transformation or Metamorphosis is the act of changing one’s form into something else. Cases of transformation in ancient Greek and Roman mythology are more than frequent; they are abundant. From Homer’s Iliad to Virgil and Ovid, transformations were a topic that must have surely provoked the imagination of the ancients.

 

Animism, the belief that inanimate things are alive, was a major aspect of paganism, and not only. According to Sigmund Freud’s Totem and Taboo, animism has deep roots in the psychosynthesis of the individual which may explain why it is present in societies from every part of the world throughout the millennia. This seems to be related to the fascination of the ancient Greeks and Romans with shapeshifting, as all objects could potentially become devices for a god to communicate with a human or even host a human soul.

 

This article is interested in very specific transformations, that is transformations of ancient Greek gods in order to rape or abuse a mortal. As mortals, we will also consider the nymphs, who were minor deities with extremely long lifespans.

 

Part of this list of transformations was inspired by the Greek myth of Arachne as presented in Ovid’s Metamorphoses. In that story, Ovid described Arachne as a master weaver who had the nerve to proclaim that she was better than the gods at weaving. When Athena challenged her to a contest, Arachne weaved a legendary tapestry presenting 18 stories of ancient Greek gods shapeshifting in order to rape and take advantage of mortal men and women. Arachne’s tale clearly showcased that these stories of transformation and rape could be perceived as problematic by the ancients. In fact, they could have even inspired terror. What other feeling could someone experience in the thought of a malevolent god able to transform into virtually everything in order to abuse powerless humans in order to satisfy his capricious nature?

 

1. Europa

tizian-rape-europa-painting
The rape of Europa, Titian, 1562, Isabella Steward Gardner Museum.
Article continues below advertisement

 

Europa was the daughter of Agenor, the king of Phoenicia. Zeus took a liking to the young princess and adopted the form of a white bull to approach her.

 

Europa, unaware of the bull’s true identity and astonished by his beauty, climbed on the animal’s back. Zeus took the opportunity and abducted Europa carrying her all the way to the island of Crete, where they had two children together. This mythological episode was known in antiquity as the rape or abduction of Europa.

 

2. Callisto

titian-diana-callisto-painting
Diana and Callisto, Titian, 1556-1559, National Gallery
Article continues below advertisement

 

According to Apollodorus, Callisto was the daughter of King Lycaon of Arcadia. She had taken an oath to remain a virgin since she was a devout follower of the Greek goddess Artemis.

 

To get her, Zeus assumed Artemis or Apollo’s form and, having earned Callisto’s trust, raped her. As if that was not enough, Zeus turned the unfortunate woman into a bear to save her from Hera’s jealousy. While still a bear, Callisto gave birth to a child named Arcas.

 

Finally, Hera did get her revenge by having Artemis kill Callisto by convincing her that she was a wild beast. However, there is also a version of the myth in which Artemis killed Callisto for having lost her virginity.

 

3. Antiope

corregio-zeus-antiope-painting
Jupiter and Antiope, Antionio da Corregio, 1524-7, Louvre
Article continues below advertisement

 

Antiope in Greek mythology was the daughter of King Asopus of Boeotia. Zeus, enchanted by her beauty, transformed himself into a satyr and raped her.

 

Antiope’s rape by the father of the ancient Greek gods was only the beginning of her misfortunes. Soon after it became evident that she was pregnant with Zeus’ child. Afraid that her father would react badly to the news, she ran to Sicyon and married the local king. However, she was dragged back to Boeotia by her uncle.

 

In a version of the myth, Dionysus cursed Antiope to become insane after killing her uncle’s tyrannical wife. In the end, Phocus of Tithorea broke the enchantment and married Antiope.

 

4. Alcmene

tardieu-zeus-alcmene-print
Jupiter and Alcmene, print by Nicolas Tardieu, after Perino del Vaga, 1729-1749, British Museum
Article continues below advertisement

 

Alcmene was the wife of the king of Tiryns, Amphitryon. While her husband was away in a military expedition, Zeus conceived a truly disturbing plan. The Greek god took the form of Amphitryon and spent three nights with Alcmene, who was unaware that this was not her husband.

 

From this union, the greatest Greek hero was born, Hercules.

 

5. Danae

titian-danae-receiving-golden-rain-painting
Danae receiving the Golden Rain, Tizian, 1560-5, Prado
Article continues below advertisement

 

Danae was the daughter of Acrisius, the King of Argos. According to a prophecy, Acrisius would die by the hand of his daughter’s son. Unable to accept his fate, Acrisius decided to imprison Danae and forbid all men from approaching her.

 

To his bad luck, Danae attracted the interest of Zeus. Even though she was locked in a bronze dungeon with no possible entrance, Zeus was the King of the ancient Greek gods, and nothing could stop him. Finally, the god of thunder became a rain of gold and infiltrated Danae’s cell from the roof. In the end, Danae gave birth to Perseus, and Acrisius realized that no one can control his fate.

 

6. Aegina

greuze-aegina-visited-zeus-jupiter
Aegina visited by Jupiter, Jean-Baptiste Greuze, 
Article continues below advertisement

“but he carried you to the island Oenopia and slept with you there, where you bore Aeacus, the dearest of all men on earth to the loud-thundering father.”
Pindar, Isthmian 8

 

Aegina was the daughter of the river-god Asopus and the nymph Metope. Zeus abducted her in the form of an eagle and carried her all the way to Oenone, an island near Athens. Asopus followed them and attempted to retrieve his daughter, but Zeus repelled him with his thunder.

 

In Oenone, Aegina gave birth to Zeus’ son named Aeacus, who later became king of the island, which received Aegina’s name.

 

7. Theophane

herbert-james-draper-golden-fleece-painting
The Golden Fleece, Herbert James Draper, 1904, Bradford Museums

 

Theophane was an extremely beautiful maiden and the daughter of Bisaltes. Her beauty was so famous that suitors continually came asking for her hand.

 

Poseidon, the ocean ancient Greek god of the ocean, took her away by force to the island of Crumissa, but even there, the suitors kept harassing the woman. Poseidon, at that point, decided to change Theophane into a ewe and himself into a ram. The rest of the island’s inhabitants were turned into cattle and the suitors into wolves. From the union (or rape) of Theophane and Poseidon was born the ram bearing the legendary golden fleece.

 

8. Medusa

carlos-schwabe-medusa-gorgon-painting-
Medusa, Carlos Schwabe, 1895, private collection, via Art Renewal Centre

 

The Gorgon Medusa was not always a terrifying creature turning those looking at her into stone. At first, Medusa was a beautiful woman who had the bad fortune of being beautiful enough to become Poseidon’s target.

 

The god raped the woman as a horse inside the temple of Athena. Of course, Athena could not leave the sacrilege of her temple unpunished. Then again, she could not punish Poseidon, who was also a god and also older than her. Instead, Athena directed her anger towards Medusa, transforming her into an ill-famed beast so ugly that those looking at it turned into stone.

 

9. Melantho

dolphin-poseidon-greek-mythology
Photo of a dolphin

 

Melantho was a daughter of the legendary Deucalion and a princess of Phokis. Poseidon seduced her by shapeshifting into a dolphin. Melantho bore the ancient Greek god a son named Delphos.

 

10. Helle

phrixus-helle-pompei
Phrixus and Helle, Roman fresco from Pompei, 45-79 CE, Archaeological Museum, Naples

 

Helle was a princess of Athamantia in Boiotia. Her story was tragic, but that is a topic for another time. What matters is that at some point, Helle fell into the Hellespont strait (named after her) to escape her stepmother. Poseidon saved her and seduced her while he was transformed into an ocean nymph.

 

11. Iphimedeia

neptune-calming-seas-ancient-greek-gods-statue
Neptune calming the waves, Lambert-Sigisbert, 1737, Louvre

 

In the same way, Zeus visited Danae in the form of golden rain, Poseidon visited Iphimedeia, the wife of Lord Aloeus of Malis, in the form of seawater. However, there are not many details about this story.

 

12. Ganymede

rembrandt-abduction-ganymede-painting
The Abduction of Ganymede, Rembrandt van Rijn, 1635, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden

 

“A pleasant thing hath lad’s-love ever been since Ganymede was loved of the great Son of Cronus, the king of the Immortals, who seized and brought him to Olympus and made him a God, what time his boyhood was in its lovely flower.”
THEOGNIS, FRAGMENT 1. 1345

 

Ganymede is a case of special interest. His story is indicative not only of the ancient Greek perceptions surrounding rape but also pedophilia.

 

According to Greek Mythology, Ganymedes was born in Troy. While still at a young age, he became the object of desire for none other than Zeus. The Greek god transformed into an eagle and abducted Ganymedes, bringing him to Olympus, where he was granted immortality and eternal youth, as long as he served as the gods’ cupbearer.

 

13. Erigone

carle-van-loo-erigone-greek-mythology-paitning
Erigone, Carle Van Loo, ca. 1747, High Museum of Art

 

Erigone, the daughter of Icarius, the man who introduced the cult of Dionysus to Athens, is said by Ovid to have been raped by Dionysus in the form of a bunch of grapes.

 

14. Canace

pichore-canace-ovid-illustration-greek-mythology
Canace, Jean Pichore, 15th century, via BnF Gallica

 

Just as Zeus abducted Europa in the form of a bull, Poseidon also transformed into a bull to abduct and rape Canace, a Thessalian princess.

 

Conclusion: Ancient Greek Gods And Rape In Antiquity

 

Rape remains a dark but surprisingly common aspect of Greek mythology. Xenophanes, the presocratic philosopher, criticized Homer, Hesiod, and most Greeks in general for fashioning their gods based on their societies. If that is true, then we can safely argue that rape was a pretty common practice of the strict patriarchal ancient Greek society. The normalization of rape extended to the point that it is almost impossible to distinguish between consensual intercourse, abduction, and rape in Greek mythology. Other times, even if it is clear that someone has been raped, the moral implications of such an act are not always explicit.

Article continues below advertisement
Antonis Chaliakopoulos
Antonis Chaliakopoulos
Antonis is an archaeologist with a passion for museums and heritage and a keen interest in aesthetics and the reception of classical art. He holds an MSc in Museum Studies from the University of Glasgow and a BA in History and Archaeology from the University of Athens (NKUA). Antonis is a senior staff member at TheCollector, managing the Archaeology and Ancient History department. In his spare time, he publishes articles on his specialty.

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