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10 Facts about Mark Rothko, The Multiform Father

Mark Rothko in his studio in front of his painting No. 7, 1960 Markus Rothkowitz (commonly known as Mark Rothko) was an Abstract Expressionist painter

10 Facts about Mark Rothko, The Multiform Father

Mark Rothko in his studio in front of his painting No. 7, 1960Markus Rothkowitz (commonly known as Mark Rothko) was an Abstract Expressionist painter who was born in Duagavpils, Latvia. At the time, this was part of the Russian Empire. Most of his artistic career occurred in the United States after immigrating at a young age. He is known for his large scale, intense color-blocked paintings called Multiforms.

10. He came from a Jewish family but was raised secular

Photo of Mark Rothko by James Scott in 1959
Photo of Mark Rothko by James Scott in 1959

Mark Rothko grew up in a lower-middle class, Jewish household. His childhood was often filled with fear due to rampant, antisemitic.

Even with modest income and fear, their father, Jacob Rothkowitz made sure that his family was highly educated. They were a “reading family” and Jacob was extremely anti-religious for most of his life. The Rothkowitz family was also pro-Marxist and politically involved.

9. His family immigrated to the United States from Latvian Russia

Portrait of Mark Rothko
Portrait of Mark Rothko

Mark Rothko’s father and eldest brothers immigrated to the United States for fear of being drafted into the Imperial Russian Army. Mark, his sister and their mother immigrated later. They entered the country through Ellis Island in late 1913.

His father died soon after. Rothko completely severed ties with religion (his father converted back late in life) and joined the workforce. By 1923, he began to work in the New York City garment district. While he was there, he visited a friend in art school, saw them painting a model, and he immediately fell in love with that world.

Rothko then began attending classes at Parsons – The New School for Design under the direction of Arshile Gorky. This is where he met Milton Avery, the artist who showed Rothko that a professional artistic career was possible.

8. He changed his name to avoid antisemitism

Inner space - the Mark Rothko room at London's Tate Modern. Photograph: David Sillitoe for the Guardian
Inner space – the Mark Rothko room at London’s Tate Modern. Photograph: David Sillitoe for the Guardian

In February of 1938, Mark Rothko finally became an official United States citizen. This decision was made due to the growing Nazi influence in Europe predicating World War II. Like many other American Jews, Rothko feared that the growing international tensions could provoke a sudden and forced deportation.

This also led the artist to legally change his name. Instead of using his birth name, Markus Rothkowitz, he chose his more familiar moniker, Mark Rothko. Rothko wanted to avoid antisemetic cruelty and chose a name that was not as Jewish sounding.

7. He was strongly influenced by Nihilism and Mythology

Four Darks in Red, Mark Rothko, 1958, Whitney Museum of American Art
Four Darks in Red, Mark Rothko, 1958, Whitney Museum of American Art

Rothko read Friedrich Nietzsche’s The Birth of Tragedy (1872) and it deeply influenced his artistic mission. Neitzsche’s theory discusses how classical mythology exists to save humanity from the terrifying mundanity of everyday, mortal life. Rothko connected this to his art and began to see his work as a sort of mythology. It could artistically fill modern human’s spiritual emptiness. This became his main goal.

In his own art, he utilized archaic forms and symbols as a way to connect past humanity to modern existence. Rothko saw those forms as inherent to civilization and utilized them to comment on contemporary life. By creating his own form of the “myth” he hoped to replenish the spiritual void in his viewers.

6. His art culminated in “Multiforms”

No. 61 (Rust and Blue), Mark Rothko, 1953, 115 cm × 92 cm (45 in × 36 in). Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles
No. 61 (Rust and Blue), Mark Rothko, 1953, 115 cm × 92 cm (45 in × 36 in). Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles

In 1946, Rothko began creating large scale paintings that consisted of blurred blocks of color. These works are considered Multiforms, although Rothko never used this term himself.

These works are supposed to be a spiritual artform. They are completely devoid of any landscape, figure, myth or even symbol. Their purpose is purely to evoke emotion and personal connection. They accomplish this by taking on a life of their own, without direct connection to human experience. Rothko would not even name his works for fear of limiting their potential with a title.

These multiforms would become Rothko’s signature style. He has become synonymous with these works and they are the mature culmination of his artistic career.

5. Once he gained popularity, he was considered a sell out

White Center, Mark Rothko, 1950, oil on canvas; Sold at Sotheby's for $73 million on May 15, 2007.
White Center, Mark Rothko, 1950, oil on canvas; Sold at Sotheby’s for $73 million on May 15, 2007

In the early 1950s, Fortune 500 declared that Mark Rothko paintings are a great monetary investment. This lead avant garde colleagues, like Barnett Newman, to call Rothko a sell out with “bourgeoisie aspirations.”

This made Rothko worried that people would purchase his art because it’s in style, not because they truly understood it. He began to go silent when asked about his art’s meaning, deciding that this said more than words ever could.

4. He absolutely despised Pop Art

Flag, Jasper Johns, 1954, Encaustic, oil, and collage on fabric mounted on plywood, three panels, Museum of Modern Art.
Flag, Jasper Johns, 1954, Encaustic, oil, and collage on fabric mounted on plywood, three panels, Museum of Modern Art

After the Abstract Expressionist boom of the 1940s and into the 1950s, Pop Art became the next big thing in the art scene. Abstract Expressionists like Willem de Kooning, Jackson Pollock and, of course, Mark Rothko were becoming passé at this time. Pop Artists like Roy Lichtenstein, Jasper Johns and Andy Warhol were now the key art players and Rothko despised this.

Rothko made it clear that this was not due to jealousy, but a vapid dislike of the artform. He felt that Pop Art, specifically Jasper Johns’ Flag, was reversing all the work previously done to further the development of art.

3. His masterpiece is called the Rothko Chapel

Rothko Chapel in Houston, Texas.
Rothko Chapel in Houston, Texas

Mark Rothko considered the Rothko Chapel to be his “single most important artistic statement.” He wanted to create an all encompassing, spiritual experience for viewers inside this designated space to view his paintings.

This Chapel is located in Houston, Texas and it is a small, windowless building. The architectural design of the space was chosen to emulate Roman Catholic art and architecture practices. This imbues a sense of spirituality in the space. It was also located in a city far from the centers of art like LA and NYC, making it a sort of pilgrimage for the most interested art viewer.

A rendering of the chapel with the new skylight and Rothko paintings. Kate Rothko Prizel & Christopher Rothko/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; Architecture Research Office
A rendering of the chapel with the new skylight and Rothko paintings. Kate Rothko Prizel & Christopher Rothko/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; Architecture Research Office

The final creation is a sort of mecca for abstract expressionism. A viewer can experience the full life his paintings create in a spiritually connected setting, just for this purpose. Seats are available for quiet contemplation and inner work.

2. He ended his own life

Rothko's grave at East Marion Cemetery, East Marion, New York
Rothko’s grave at East Marion Cemetery, East Marion, New York

In 1968, Rothko was diagnosed with a mild aortic aneurysm. Living a healthier life would have increased his quality of life immensely, but he refused to make any changes. Rothko continued drinking, smoking, and living an ultimately unhealthy lifestyle.

As his health decreased, he had to make changes to his style. He could not paint large scale works without the help of assistants.

Unfortunately, on February 25, 1970, one of these assistants found Mark Rothko dead in his kitchen at 66 years old. He had ended his own life and did not leave a note.

1. His works are extremely profitable on the market

Orange, Red, Yellow, Mark Rothko, 1961, oil on canvas.
Orange, Red, Yellow, Mark Rothko, 1961, oil on canvas

Mark Rotkho works have consistently sold for high prices. In 2012, his painting Orange, Red, Yellow (catalogue no. 693) sold for $86 million dollars at Christies. This set the record for the highest nominal value for a postwar painting at a public auction. This painting is even on lists of most expensive paintings ever sold.

Before that, one of his works sold for $72.8 million in 2007. The most recent high-priced Rothko sold for $35.7 million in November 2018.

Though not all of his works sell for these astronomical values, they still have value and, given the right circumstances, extremely high values.


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Horst P. Horst the Avant-Garde Fashion Photographer

 


 

10 Facts about Mark Rothko, The Multiform Father

Mark Rothko in his studio in front of his painting No. 7, 1960Markus Rothkowitz (commonly known as Mark Rothko) was an Abstract Expressionist painter who was born in Duagavpils, Latvia. At the time, this was part of the Russian Empire. Most of his artistic career occurred in the United States after immigrating at a young age. He is known for his large scale, intense color-blocked paintings called Multiforms.

10. He came from a Jewish family but was raised secular

Photo of Mark Rothko by James Scott in 1959
Photo of Mark Rothko by James Scott in 1959

Mark Rothko grew up in a lower-middle class, Jewish household. His childhood was often filled with fear due to rampant, antisemitic.

Even with modest income and fear, their father, Jacob Rothkowitz made sure that his family was highly educated. They were a “reading family” and Jacob was extremely anti-religious for most of his life. The Rothkowitz family was also pro-Marxist and politically involved.

9. His family immigrated to the United States from Latvian Russia

Portrait of Mark Rothko
Portrait of Mark Rothko

Mark Rothko’s father and eldest brothers immigrated to the United States for fear of being drafted into the Imperial Russian Army. Mark, his sister and their mother immigrated later. They entered the country through Ellis Island in late 1913.

His father died soon after. Rothko completely severed ties with religion (his father converted back late in life) and joined the workforce. By 1923, he began to work in the New York City garment district. While he was there, he visited a friend in art school, saw them painting a model, and he immediately fell in love with that world.

Rothko then began attending classes at Parsons – The New School for Design under the direction of Arshile Gorky. This is where he met Milton Avery, the artist who showed Rothko that a professional artistic career was possible.

8. He changed his name to avoid antisemitism

Inner space - the Mark Rothko room at London's Tate Modern. Photograph: David Sillitoe for the Guardian
Inner space – the Mark Rothko room at London’s Tate Modern. Photograph: David Sillitoe for the Guardian

In February of 1938, Mark Rothko finally became an official United States citizen. This decision was made due to the growing Nazi influence in Europe predicating World War II. Like many other American Jews, Rothko feared that the growing international tensions could provoke a sudden and forced deportation.

This also led the artist to legally change his name. Instead of using his birth name, Markus Rothkowitz, he chose his more familiar moniker, Mark Rothko. Rothko wanted to avoid antisemetic cruelty and chose a name that was not as Jewish sounding.

7. He was strongly influenced by Nihilism and Mythology

Four Darks in Red, Mark Rothko, 1958, Whitney Museum of American Art
Four Darks in Red, Mark Rothko, 1958, Whitney Museum of American Art

Rothko read Friedrich Nietzsche’s The Birth of Tragedy (1872) and it deeply influenced his artistic mission. Neitzsche’s theory discusses how classical mythology exists to save humanity from the terrifying mundanity of everyday, mortal life. Rothko connected this to his art and began to see his work as a sort of mythology. It could artistically fill modern human’s spiritual emptiness. This became his main goal.

In his own art, he utilized archaic forms and symbols as a way to connect past humanity to modern existence. Rothko saw those forms as inherent to civilization and utilized them to comment on contemporary life. By creating his own form of the “myth” he hoped to replenish the spiritual void in his viewers.

6. His art culminated in “Multiforms”

No. 61 (Rust and Blue), Mark Rothko, 1953, 115 cm × 92 cm (45 in × 36 in). Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles
No. 61 (Rust and Blue), Mark Rothko, 1953, 115 cm × 92 cm (45 in × 36 in). Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles

In 1946, Rothko began creating large scale paintings that consisted of blurred blocks of color. These works are considered Multiforms, although Rothko never used this term himself.

These works are supposed to be a spiritual artform. They are completely devoid of any landscape, figure, myth or even symbol. Their purpose is purely to evoke emotion and personal connection. They accomplish this by taking on a life of their own, without direct connection to human experience. Rothko would not even name his works for fear of limiting their potential with a title.

These multiforms would become Rothko’s signature style. He has become synonymous with these works and they are the mature culmination of his artistic career.

5. Once he gained popularity, he was considered a sell out

White Center, Mark Rothko, 1950, oil on canvas; Sold at Sotheby's for $73 million on May 15, 2007.
White Center, Mark Rothko, 1950, oil on canvas; Sold at Sotheby’s for $73 million on May 15, 2007

In the early 1950s, Fortune 500 declared that Mark Rothko paintings are a great monetary investment. This lead avant garde colleagues, like Barnett Newman, to call Rothko a sell out with “bourgeoisie aspirations.”

This made Rothko worried that people would purchase his art because it’s in style, not because they truly understood it. He began to go silent when asked about his art’s meaning, deciding that this said more than words ever could.

4. He absolutely despised Pop Art

Flag, Jasper Johns, 1954, Encaustic, oil, and collage on fabric mounted on plywood, three panels, Museum of Modern Art.
Flag, Jasper Johns, 1954, Encaustic, oil, and collage on fabric mounted on plywood, three panels, Museum of Modern Art

After the Abstract Expressionist boom of the 1940s and into the 1950s, Pop Art became the next big thing in the art scene. Abstract Expressionists like Willem de Kooning, Jackson Pollock and, of course, Mark Rothko were becoming passé at this time. Pop Artists like Roy Lichtenstein, Jasper Johns and Andy Warhol were now the key art players and Rothko despised this.

Rothko made it clear that this was not due to jealousy, but a vapid dislike of the artform. He felt that Pop Art, specifically Jasper Johns’ Flag, was reversing all the work previously done to further the development of art.

3. His masterpiece is called the Rothko Chapel

Rothko Chapel in Houston, Texas.
Rothko Chapel in Houston, Texas

Mark Rothko considered the Rothko Chapel to be his “single most important artistic statement.” He wanted to create an all encompassing, spiritual experience for viewers inside this designated space to view his paintings.

This Chapel is located in Houston, Texas and it is a small, windowless building. The architectural design of the space was chosen to emulate Roman Catholic art and architecture practices. This imbues a sense of spirituality in the space. It was also located in a city far from the centers of art like LA and NYC, making it a sort of pilgrimage for the most interested art viewer.

A rendering of the chapel with the new skylight and Rothko paintings. Kate Rothko Prizel & Christopher Rothko/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; Architecture Research Office
A rendering of the chapel with the new skylight and Rothko paintings. Kate Rothko Prizel & Christopher Rothko/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; Architecture Research Office

The final creation is a sort of mecca for abstract expressionism. A viewer can experience the full life his paintings create in a spiritually connected setting, just for this purpose. Seats are available for quiet contemplation and inner work.

2. He ended his own life

Rothko's grave at East Marion Cemetery, East Marion, New York
Rothko’s grave at East Marion Cemetery, East Marion, New York

In 1968, Rothko was diagnosed with a mild aortic aneurysm. Living a healthier life would have increased his quality of life immensely, but he refused to make any changes. Rothko continued drinking, smoking, and living an ultimately unhealthy lifestyle.

As his health decreased, he had to make changes to his style. He could not paint large scale works without the help of assistants.

Unfortunately, on February 25, 1970, one of these assistants found Mark Rothko dead in his kitchen at 66 years old. He had ended his own life and did not leave a note.

1. His works are extremely profitable on the market

Orange, Red, Yellow, Mark Rothko, 1961, oil on canvas.
Orange, Red, Yellow, Mark Rothko, 1961, oil on canvas

Mark Rotkho works have consistently sold for high prices. In 2012, his painting Orange, Red, Yellow (catalogue no. 693) sold for $86 million dollars at Christies. This set the record for the highest nominal value for a postwar painting at a public auction. This painting is even on lists of most expensive paintings ever sold.

Before that, one of his works sold for $72.8 million in 2007. The most recent high-priced Rothko sold for $35.7 million in November 2018.

Though not all of his works sell for these astronomical values, they still have value and, given the right circumstances, extremely high values.


RECOMMENDED ARTICLE:

Horst P. Horst the Avant-Garde Fashion Photographer

 


 

Jacqueline Lewis
Jacqueline Lewis
Jacqueline Lewis is a History of Art & Architecture graduate. While studying art, she worked in the research department of The Chicago History Museum and wrote articles for Chicago Gallery News. Now, she is the Assistant Director of a long-standing, prestigious art gallery in Chicago. Throughout the year she works at major art events like the New York IFPDA Print Fair, SOFA and EXPO Chicago. She also writes and publishes articles about the art scene and historical topics.

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